Traditional solutions to the removal of scale include treatment with dangerous chemicals containing concentrated mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid, or weaker organic acids such as sulphamic acid

Sulphamic acid is safer than mineral acid but it is significantly less effective than hydrochloric acid and it is also classified as ‘harmful to aquatic organisms’, and ‘may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment’.

The use of these de- scaling preparations in situations where the scale is contaminated with oil or grease also requires a preliminary clean with a de-greasing chemicals.